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职称英语现在完成时备考攻略

2014-10-29 17:27   类别:语法   来源:   责编:Dong


1 现在完成时的概念

现在完成时表示过去发生并且已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果,以及过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

现在完成时是由助动词 have(has)+动词的过去分词构成。

 

2 现在完成时的用法:

其主要用法有三种:

I 已完成用法。 表示一个过去发生并结束的动作对现在产生的结果和影响。这一类情况可以细致分为下述两种情况。

1)表示开始于过去的动作刚刚结束。常和just,now,already,yet,not…yet等连用。

Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。(说明现在灯关上了)

I've finished my homework now. 现在我已经做完作业了。(说明可以交作业或做别的了)

 

2)表示过去动作的结果,现在仍残留着。一般不用时间状语。

I have lost my pen. 我把笔丢了。 (说明过去某时丢的,现在我还没找到这支笔)

She has become a teacher. 她已经当了老师。(说明她现在仍是老师)

II 未完成用法。表示过去已经开始,持续到现在,而且还能继续下去的动作或状态。往往和表示一段时间的状语连用。如today,this week(month),lately,recently,these days,in the past few days,during the last two weeks. since,since yesterday,since 2 days ago,since 1991,for a longtime,for a month,so far,up to now,till(until) now等。

He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在这儿三十年了。(现在还住在这儿)

They've known each other since childhood. 他们从小彼此相识。(现在还继续往来)

How long have you studied English? 你学英语多久了?(现在仍在学)

III 经验性用法。表示从过去到现在之间曾经经历过的事情。一般译为汉语“过”,常和often,never,ever,once,twice,three times,before,since等连用。

I have been to the Summer Palace twice. 我曾经去过颐和园两次。

We have visited your school before. 我以前曾去过你们学校。

(过去的经历,但现在依然记得)

3 现在完成时的时间状语

I 现在完成时属于现在时范围,故不能和过去的时间状语连用。如:yesterday,last Sunday,in1990,three years ago等。但是,在强调动作产生的后果和影响时,可以和一些表示不确定的时间状语连用。

a. 用副词already和yet。already一般用于肯定句中,yet一般用于否定句和 疑问句中。如:We have already finished our homework.我们已完成作业了。

They haven't finished their homework yet.他们还没有完成作业。

 

b. 用ever 和never。多用于否定或疑问句中,表示“曾经”或“从未“等。 如:

-Have you ever been to the Great Wall?你曾经去过长城吗

-I have never been to the Great Wall.我从未去过长城。

 

c. 用表示到说话为止的过去时间状语,如just,before,up to now,the past few years等。例如:I have seen her before,but I can not remember where. 我以前见过她,但记不起在哪里见过。

He has been there three times the last few days. 近几年他去过那里三次了。

 

d. 用包括“现在”在内的时间状语,如:now,today,this morning(month,year,term)等。例如:-Have you met him today?-No,I haven't. 今天你见过他吗?我 没有。

How many times have you been there this year? 今年你去过那里多少次?

II 短暂性动词不能和表一段时间的时间状语连用。如:come, go, arrive, reach, see, hear, close, leave, begin, start, lose, buy, close, fall, join, die, get up等。但如果要保留表一段时间的时间状语,必须将动词改为延续性动词。现归纳总结一下由非延续性动词到延续性动词的转换,如:

fall asleep (ill) →be asleep (ill) get to know→ know

begin,(start)→ be on open →be open

buy→ have get up→ be up

die→ be dead go out→ be out

come→ be in close→be closed

arrive→be here join→be in, be a +名词

finish( end )→be over leave, move →be away, be out of

borrow →keep go to school→be a student

catch(a cold)→ have(a cold) begin to study→study

come back→be back put on→wear 或be on

 

如:He has been a soldier for three years.他参军三年了。

His father has been dead for two years.他父亲去世二年了。

The film has been on for ten minutes.电影已开始十分钟了。

We have studied English for three years. 我们(开始)学英语已三年了。

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